|Other names||pentalpha, pentangle, key of solomon, star of solomon|
|Year of origin||2,500-3,000 BCE|
The pentagram originates as one of the oldest religious symbols and was associated from its very birth with both a belief in its supernatural powers and rituals of human sacrifice.
In mathematics, a pentagram (sometimes known as a pentalpha or pentangle) is the shape of a five-pointed star drawn with five straight strokes. The word pentagram comes from the Greek word πεντάγραμμον (pentagrammon), a form of πεντάγραμμος (pentagrammos) or πεντέγραμμος (pentegrammos), a word meaning roughly "five-lined" or "five lines".
The earliest known use of a pentagram in any culture was found in Mesopotamia cultures during the earliest civilizations from around 2,500 to 3,500 BCE. In the Sumerian language, the pentagram (always inverted with two points up and one point down) served as a pictograph of the word "UB" meaning "corner, angle, nook; a small room, cavity, hole; pitfall".
In turn, the word UB (original name for pentagram) literally signified the most important religious ceremony of the various Sumer cities at which they sacrificed people to their most important female goddess, the "Queen of Heaven" also known as Inanna/Ishtar and in later centuries known as Athena/Cybele and Venus. The Sumerians would big a great pit and depending on the type of ceremony, would either place a large fire at the base of the pit into which people would be thrown, or bound and tossed (as in the case of the death of a king). As a result, the pentagram has always been an official symbol of the "Queen of Heaven" from the beginning of time.
From around 2,000 BCE, the pentagram took on the additional meaning of representing the five major gods of key Akkadian/Sumerian mythology, with each god representing a point and the whole star representing Ishtar as "Queen of Heaven". The pentagram and god association also had an astrological connection as the star represented the five brightest celestial bodies in the night sky- the planets of Jupiter, Mercury, Mars, Saturn and Venus- the brightest.
Under the Amorites (Neo-Akkadians) of Ugarit, Mari and Ebla, the pentagram came to symbolize the act of supreme sacrifice or Ba'al Moloch in worshipping Astarte still with pits, but also more sophisticated forms of sacrifice such as ovens as the geometric literal representation of the "head of the bull". However, under the Pythagorus religious cult during the 6th Century BCE in Greece, the Pentagram was completely reinvented from being the single most evil symbol of all religious talismans to being a symbol of good.
Under Pythagorus and his religious movement, the pentagram was given its "Wicca" positive attributes of a symbol representing the five classical elements: water, earth, idea, heat and air with the complete symbol representing the Greek goddess of health: Hygieia. While none of these attributes have any historical substance to the original intent, design or real meaning of the pentagram, the popularity of the "positive pentagram" have remained today. In contrast, by the 1st Century CE, the pentagram became synonymous as the symbol of Mithra as both the "head of the sacrificial bull" and the "head of the goat" as a symbol of alleged great power in the channelling of spiritual energy during human sacrifice.
During the Middle Ages and the rise of the Roman Cult, the pentagram became the central symbol of the Necromancers in the concocted belief that the symbol somehow acted as a portal, a binding and a talisman of power in the control of ghosts (spirits). An entire and elaorately ficticious cosmology was formed under the infamous grimoires and the writings of such occultists as John Dee where the pentagram became an essential symbol of the necromancer.
Magical function of the Pentagram
The oldest function of the pentagram in magic in Mesopotamian cultures was as the simplest geometric representation of the feminine, with the longest points representing her legs, the intersection her uterus, the shortest points to the side her breasts and the top her head. Thus energetic "birth" or the primary source of energy from the pentagram was the "uterus" between the symbolic legs and the secondary being the breasts.
When the pentagram became synonymous with the Ba'al and later Mithra, the intersection of the longest points became the crown, or primary "inbound" point and the opposite point, the head or "capito" as the intentional direction of power. Roman necromancers also introduced the notion of a moving pentagram whereby spiritual essence was "collected" and then as the head turned it would be directed to some point. Thus, the circle around a pentagram became an essential element in converting the symbol into a seal that then could direct energy brought in, to some outbound point, even if the physical symbol did not move.
The confused world concerning the pentagram
The world has become confused when trying to establish the origins and real meaning of the pentagram. In one instance, there is a substantial amount of contradictory information about the significance of the shape of a pentagram. The original Sumerian, Akkadian, Jewish Black Magic and Middle Ages Black Magic practices strictly adhered to the earliest of designs with a pentagram (as shown above) being two points up, one point down, with the left and right triangles being smaller than the up or down triangles.
Today, most pentagrams sold as black magic symbols are too geometrically perfect compared to the ancient original design used throughout black magic history, while many versions promoted as "good" are more in common with the ancient original design.
The largest authentic satanic pentagram in the world
The largest authentic black magic pentagram every created in history is the one devised by the Vatican and Jesuits using their control of Catholic Dictators in Europe during World War II. Formed from the five worst human sacrifice camps of World War II, the 300 mile wide Great Vatican Jesuit Pentagram of Evil is the largest attempt to use this symbol in the sacrifice to the Queen of Heaven (aka Cybele).
The most important remaining pentagrams are in the buildings and floors of Vatican- dedicating the temple of St Peter to effectively the largest shrine to Cybele in history.